Nephrology concerns the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Many diseases affecting the kidney are those disorders which are not limited to the kidney itself, and may require special treatment. There are many such examples.
Patients are referred to nephrology specialists after a urinalysis, for various reasons, such as acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, hematuria (blood in urine), proteinuria (protein in urine), kidney stones, hypertension, and disorders of acid/base or electrolytes.
Diabetic patients who develop Diabetic Nephropathy are treated by Nephrologists, along with the Doctor who treats the Diabetes.
A Nephrologist is a Physician who specializes in the care and treatment of kidney disease.
They are doctors who have completed their MBBS, done an MD in Internal Medicine, and then done a 3 year degree in Nephrology, known as a DM in Nephrology. This is because Nephrology requires additional training to become an expert with advanced skills. Pediatricians or Nephrologists may decide to provide care to children with kidney problems and become Pediatric Nephrologists (dealing with children who have kidney diseases).
Nephrologists deal with dialysis, kidney transplantation, chronic kidney disease, cancer-related kidney diseases (Onconephrology), Procedures a nephrologist may perform include native kidney and transplant kidney biopsy, dialysis creating Arterio-venous fistulas (known as A V Fistulas), peritoneal dialysis access lines.